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Appomattox   

The end of the American Civil War. This war was a war of epic proportion.
Never before and not since have so many Americans died in battle. The
American Civil War was truly tragic in terms of human life. In this
document, I will speak mainly around those involved on the battlefield in
the closing days of the conflict. Also, reference will be made to the
leading men behind the Union and Confederate forces.
The war was beginning to end by January of 1865. By then, Federal
(Federal was another name given to the Union Army) armies were spread
throughout the Confederacy and the Confederate Army had shrunk extremely in
size. In the year before, the North had lost an enormous amount of lives,
but had more than enough to lose in comparison to the South. General Grant
became known as the "Butcher" (Grant, Ulysses S., Personal Memoirs of U.S.
Grant, New York: Charles L. Webster & Co.,1894) and many wanted to see him
removed. But Lincoln stood firm with his General, and the war continued.
This paper will follow the happenings and events between the winter of
1864-65 and the surrender of The Confederate States of America. All of
this will most certainly illustrate that April 9, 1865 was indeed the end
of a tragedy.
CUTTING OFF THE SOUTH
In September of 1864, General William T. Sherman and his army cleared
the city of Atlanta of its civilian population then rested ever so briefly.
It was from there that General Sherman and his army began its famous
"march
to the sea". The march covered a distance of 400 miles and was 60 miles
wide on the way. For 32 days no news of him reached the North. He had cut
himself off from his base of supplies, and his men lived on what ever they
could get from the country through which they passed. On their route, the
army destroyed anything and everything that they could not use but was
presumed usable to the enemy. In view of this destruction, it is
understandable that Sherman quoted "war is hell" (Sherman, William T.,
Memoirs of General William T. Sherman. Westport, Conn.:Greenwood Press,
1972). Finally, on December 20, Sherman's men reached the city of Savannah
and from there Sherman telegraphed to President Lincoln: "I beg to present
you as a Christmas gift the city of Savannah, with 150 heavy guns and
plenty of ammunition, and also about 25,000 bales of cotton" (Sherman,
William T., Memoirs of General William T. Sherman. Westport,
Conn.:Greenwood Press, 1972).
Grant had decided that the only way to win and finish the war would be
to crunch with numbers. He knew that the Federal forces held more than a
modest advantage in terms of men and supplies. This in mind, Grant
directed
Sherman to turn around now and start heading back toward Virginia. He
immediately started making preparations to provide assistance to Sherman on
the journey. General John M. Schofield and his men were to detach from the
Army of the Cumberland, which had just embarrassingly defeated the
Confederates at Nashville, and proceed toward North Carolina. His final
destination was to be Goldsboro, which was roughly half the distance
between Savannah and Richmond. This is where he and his 20,000 troops
would meet Sherman and his 50,000 troops.
Sherman began the move north in mid-January of 1865. The only hope of
Confederate resistance would be supplied by General P.G.T. Beauregard. He
was scraping together an army with every resource he could lay his hands
on, but at best would only be able to muster about 30,000 men. This by
obvious mathematics would be no challenge to the combined forces of
Schofield and Sherman, let alone Sherman. Sherman's plan was to march
through South Carolina all the while confusing the enemy. His men would
march in two ranks: One would travel northwest to give the impression of a
press against Augusta and the other would march northeast toward
Charleston. However the one true objective would be Columbia.
Sherman's force arrived in Columbia on February 16. The city was
burned to the ground and great controversy was to arise. The Confederates
claimed that Sherman's men set the fires "deliberately, systematically, and
atrociously". However, Sherman claimed that the fires were burning when
they arrived. The fires had been set to cotton bales by Confederate
Calvary to prevent the Federal Army from getting them and the high winds
quickly spread the fire. The controversy would be short lived as no proof
would ever be presented. So with Columbia, Charleston, and Augusta all
fallen, Sherman would continue his drive north toward Goldsboro. On the
way, his progress would be stalled not by the Confederate army but by
runaway slaves. The slaves were attaching themselves to the Union columns
and by the time the force entered North Carolina, they numbered in the
thousands (Barrett, John G., Sherman's March through the Carolinas. Chapel
Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1956). But Sherman's force
pushed on and finally met up with Schofield in Goldsboro on March 23rd.
THE END IS PLANNED
Sherman immediately left Goldsboro to travel up to City Point and meet
Grant to discuss plans of attack. When he arrived there, he found not only
Grant, but also Admiral David Porter waiting to meet with President
Lincoln. So on the morning of the March 28th, General Grant, General
Sherman, and Admiral Porter all met with Lincoln on the river boat "River
Queen" to discuss a strategy against General Lee and General Johnston of
the Confederate Army. Several times Lincoln asked "can't this last battle
be avoided?" (Angle and Miers, Tragic Years, II) but both Generals expected
the Rebels (Rebs or Rebels were a name given to Confederate soldiers) to
put up at least one more fight. It had to be decided how to handle the
Rebels in regard to the upcoming surrender (all were sure of a surrender).
Lincoln
made his intentions very clear: "I am full of the bloodshed. You need to
defeat the opposing armies and get the men composing those armies back to
their homes to work on their farms and in their shops." (Sherman, William
T., Memoirs of General William T. Sherman. Westport, Conn.:Greenwood Press,
1972) The meeting lasted for a number of hours and near its end, Lincoln
made his orders clear: "Let them once surrender and reach their homes, they
won't take up arms again. They will at once be guaranteed all their rights
as citizens of a common country. I want no one punished, treat them
liberally all around. We want those people to return to their allegiance
to the Union and submit to the laws." (Porter, David D., Campaigning with
Grant. New York: The Century Co., 1897) Well with all of the formalities
outlined, the Generals and Admiral knew what needed to be done. Sherman
returned to Goldsboro by steamer; Grant and Porter left by train back
north. Sherman's course would be to continue north with Schofield's men
and meet Grant in Richmond. However, this would never happen as Lee would
surrender to Grant before Sherman could ever get there.
THE PUSH FOR THE END
General Grant returned back to his troops who were in the process of
besieging Petersburg and Richmond. These battles had been going on for
months. On March 24, before the meeting with President Lincoln, Grant drew
up a new plan for a flanking movement against the Confederates right below
Petersburg. It would be the first large scale operation to take place this
year and would begin five days later. Two days after Grant made
preparations to move again, Lee had already assessed the situation and
informed President Davis that Richmond and Petersburg were doomed. Lee's
only chance would be to move his troops out of Richmond and down a
southwestern path toward a meeting with fellow General Johnston's (Johnston
had been dispatched to Virginia after being ordered not to resist the
advance of Sherman's Army) forces. Lee chose a small town to the west
named Amelia Court House as a meeting point. His escape was narrow; they
(the soldiers) could see Richmond burn as they made their way across the
James
River and to the west. Grant had finally broke through and Richmond and
Petersburg were finished on the second day of April.
LINCOLN VISITS FALLEN RICHMOND
On April 4th, after visiting Petersburg briefly, President Lincoln
decided to visit the fallen city of Richmond. He arrived by boat with his
son, Tad, and was led ashore by no more than 12 armed sailors. The city
had not yet been secured by Federal forces. Lincoln had no more than taken
his first step when former slaves started forming around him singing
praises. Lincoln proceeded to join with General Godfrey Weitzel who had
been place in charge of the occupation of Richmond and taken his
headquarters in Jefferson Davis' old residence. When he arrived there, he
and Tad took an extensive tour of the house after discovering Weitzel was
out and some of the soldiers remarked that Lincoln seemed to have a boyish
expression as he did so. No one can be sure what Lincoln was thinking as
he sat in Davis' office. When Weitzel arrived, he asked the President what
to do with the conquered people. Lincoln replied that he no longer gave
direction in military manners but went on to say: "If I were in your place,
I'd let 'em up easy, let 'em up easy" (Johnson, Robert Underwood, and
Clarence Clough Buel, eds., Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, Vol 4.
New York: The Century Co., 1887).
THE CHASE BEGINS
Lee's forces were pushing west toward Amelia and the Federals would be
hot on their tails. Before leaving Richmond, Lee had asked the Commissary
Department of the Confederacy to store food in Amelia and the troops
rushed there in anticipation. What they found when they got there however
was very disappointing. While there was an abundance of ammunition and
ordinance, there was not a single morsel of food. Lee could not afford to
give up his lead over the advancing Federals so he had to move his nearly
starving troops out immediately in search of food. They continued
westward, still hoping to join with Johnston eventually, and headed for
Farmville, where Lee had been informed, there was an abundance of bacon and
cornmeal. Several skirmishes took place along the way as some Federal
regiments would catch up and attack, but the Confederate force reached
Farmville. However, the men had no more that started to eat their bacon
and cornmeal when Union General Sheridan arrived and started a fight.
Luckily, it was nearly night, and the Confederate force snuck out under
cover of the dark. But not before General Lee received General Grants
first request for surrender.
NOWHERE TO RUN
The Confederates, in their rush to leave Farmville in the night of
April 7th, did not get the rations they so desperately needed, so they were
forced to forage for food. Many chose to desert and leave for home.
General Lee saw two men leaving for home and said "Stop young men, and get
together you are straggling" and one of the soldiers replied "General, we
are just going over here to get some water" and Lee replied "Strike for
your home and fireside" (Freeman, Douglas Southall, R.E. Lee: A Biography,
Vol 3. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1935): they did. Rebel forces
reached their objective, Appomattox Court House, around 3pm on April 8th.
Lee received word that to the south, at Appomattox Station, supplies had
arrived by train and were waiting there. However, the pursuing Union
forces knew this also and took a faster southern route to the station. By
8pm that evening the Federals had taken the supplies and would wait there
for the evening, preparing to attack the Confederates at Appomattox Court
House in the morning. Meanwhile, Lee scribbled out a brave response to
Grant's inquiry simply asking for explanation of the terms to be involved
in the surrender.
THE FINAL BATTLE
At daybreak the Confederate battle line was formed to the west of
Appomattox. The Union soldiers were in position in front of the line with
cannons. When the Federal cannons started to fire, the Confederate signal
for attack was sounded and the troops charged. One soldier later remarked:
"It was my fortune to witness several charges during the war, but
never one so magnificently executed as this one." (McCarthy, Carlton,
Detailed Minutiae of Soldier Life in the Army of Northern Virginia
1861-1865. Richmond: Carlton McCarthy, 1882) This Confederate advance only
lasted from about 7am to 9am, at which time the Rebels were forced back.
The Confederates could no longer hold their lines and Lee sent word to
Grant to meet at 1pm to discuss surrender. The two men met at the now
famous McLean House and a surrender was agreed upon. It was 2pm on April 9,
1865. Johnston's army surrendered to General Sherman on April 26 in North
Carolina; General Taylor of Mississippi-Alabama and General Smith of the
trans Mississippi-Texas surrendered in May ending the war completely.

SUMMARY
The Civil War was a completely tragic event. Just think, a war in which
thousands of Americans died in their home country over nothing more than a
difference in opinion. Yes, slavery was the cause of the Civil War: half
of the country thought it was wrong and the other half just couldn't let
them go. The war was fought overall in probably 10,000 different places
and the monetary and property loss cannot be calculated. The Union dead
numbered 360,222 and only 110,000 of them died in battle. Confederate dead
were estimated at 258,000 including 94,000 who actually died on the field
of battle. The Civil War was a great waste in terms of human life and
possible accomplishment and should be considered shameful. Before its
first centennial, tragedy struck a new country and stained it for eternity.
It
will never be forgotten but adversity builds strength and the United States
of America is now a much stronger nation.



BIBLIOGRAPHY
"The Civil War", Groliers Encyclopedia, 1995
Catton, Bruce., A Stillness at Appomattox. New York: Doubleday, 1963
Foote, Shelby., The Civil War, Vol. 3. New York: Random, 1974
Garraty, John Arthur, The American Nation: A History of the United states
to 1877, Vol. 1, Eighth Edition. New
York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1995
Miers, Earl Schenck, The Last Campaign. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co.,
1972
Korn, Jerry, Pursuit to Appomattox, The Last Battles. Virginia: Time-Life
Books, 1987